Two-time champion Kvitova knocked out of Wimbledon
The 29-year-old Czech sixth seed, in the fourth round for the first time since she won the second of her titles in 2014, bows out leaving just two of the top 10 seeds remaining, Simona Halep and Elina Svitolina.
Konta, who reached the French Open semi-finals, blew her first chance of closing out the match serving at 5-2 in a game that lasted 10 minutes.
She wasted two match points and Kvitova broke her on her fourth break point.
The British player, though, suffered no such nerves when presented with two more on her following service game.
Should Konta, seeded 19, beat 33-year-old Czech Barbora Strycova in Tuesday's quarter-final she will be into her second Wimbledon semi-final having reached the same stage in 2017.